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References

Historical References
  • Sear, J.W., C. Prys-Roberts, and K.C. Phillips, Age influences the minimum infusion rate (ED50) for continuous infusions of Althesin and methohexitone.Eur J Anaesthesiol, 1984. 1(4): p. 319-25 -
  • Child, K.J., et al. Metabolism and excretion of CT1341 in the rat.in Steroid Anaesthesia.1972. Royal College of Physicians, London
  • Jurox, Jurox Pharmacovigilance report JX9604-SR004.2005. Records on File
  • Mesens, J.L., P. Putteman, and P. Verheyen, Pharmaceutical applications of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cylcodextrin., in New trends in cyclodextrins and derivatives., D. Duchene, Editor. 1991: Paris. p. 369-407.
  • Brewster, M.E., K.S. Estes, and N. Bodor, An intravenous toxicity study of 2-hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin, a useful drug solubilizer, in rats and monkeys.Int J Pharm, 1990. 59: p. 231-243. -
  • Brewster, M.E., K.S. Estes, and N. Bodor, Development of a non-surfactant formulation for alfaxalone through the use of chemically-modified cyclodextrins.J Parenter Sci Technol, 1989. 43(6): p. 262-5 -
  • Child KJ, C.J., Dis B, Dodds MG, Pearce DR, Twissell DJ., The pharmacological properties in animals of CT1341--a new steroid anaesthetic agent.Br J Anaesth, 1971. 43(1): p. 2-13 -
  • Phillipps, G.H., Structure-activity relationships in steroidal anaesthetics.J Steroid Biochem, 1975. 6(5): p. 607-613 -
  • Cocker, J.D.,et al., Action of some steroids on the central nervous system of the mouse. Synthetic Methods.J Med Chem, 1964. 8(4): p. 417-425. -
  • Robertson, J.D. and W. Williams, Studies on the clinical and pathological effects of hydroxydione. Anaesthesia, 1961. 16(4): p. 389-401. -
  • P’An, S.Y.,et al., General anesthetic and other pharmacological properties of a soluble steroid, 21-hydroxypregnanedion sodium succinate.J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1955. 115(4): p. 432-441
  • Selye, H., Correlations between the chemical structure and the pharmacological actions of the steroids.Endocrinology, 1942. 46: p. 116-121
  • Selye, H., Anaesthetic effects of steroid hormones.Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology, 1941
Alfaxan® Research References
  • Comparison of pain on injection during induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone and two formulations of propofol in dogs, Michou et al, Vet Anaesth Anal -
  • A comparison of anaesthetic recoveries in cats following induction with either alfaxalone or ketamine and diazepam, Gieseg et al, 2013, NZVJ -
  • Induction of anaesthesia for canine caesarean section with alfaxalone, Reproductive Biology, 2013 -
  • Vettorato E. Prolonged intravenous infusion of alfaxalone in a cat. Vet Anaesth Analg 09/13;40:551–2. -
  • Seebacher, F. and C.E. Franklin, Redistribution of blood within the body is important for thermoregulation in an ectothermic vertebrate (Crocodylus porosus).J Comp Physiol B, 2007. 177(8): p. 841-8.
  • Leece, E.A., N.M. Girard, and K. Maddern, Alfaxalone in cyclodextrin for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2009. 36(5): p. 480-484 -
  • Keates, H., Induction of anaesthesia in pigs using a new alphaxalone formulation.Vet Rec, 2003. 153(20): p. 627-8 -
  • Grint, N.J., et al. A comparison of two doses of alfaxalone used for intravenous induction of anaesthesia in rabbits. in Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists Autumn Meeting.2007. Leipzig, Germany -
  • Goodwin, W.A., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the injectable anaesthetic alfaxalone in the horse.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2011. 38(5): p. 431-438 -
  • Gil, A.G., et al., Heart and respiratory rates and adrenal response to propofol or alfaxalone in rabbits Veterinary Record, 2012. 170(17): p. 444. -
  • Brodbelt, D.C.,et al., The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(5): p. 365-73 -
  • Patten, B., et al., RD9604.03/06 The Safety of Jurox Alfaxan®-CD Anaesthetic Injection in dogs. 2000, Jurox in house
  • Patten, B., et al., RD9604.03/01 The Safety of Alfaxalone-Cyclodextrin Complex in cats.1998, Jurox in House
  • Whittem, T. and K. Pasloske, JX9604.03-E013 The in-vitro metabolism and clearance of the neurosteroid, alfaxalone, by cat and dog hepatocytes at concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/L. 2005, Jurox In House Report
  • Whittem, T., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in cats after single and multiple intravenous administration of Alfaxan®at clinical and supraclinical doses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 2008. 31(6): p. 571-9 -
  • Zaki, S., K. Ticehurst, and Y. Miyaki, Clinical evaluation of Alfaxan®-CD(R) as an intravenous anaesthetic in young cats.Aust Vet J, 2009. 87(3): p. 82-7 -
  • Psatha, E., et al., Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 24-36. -
  • Murison, P.J. and Martinez Taboada, F. Effect of propofol and alfaxalone on pain after ovariohysterectomy in cats Vet Rec., 2010. 166(11): p. 334-335 -
  • Mathis, A., et al., Comparison of quality of recovery from anaesthesia in cats induced with propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(3): p. 282-290 -
  • Martinez Taboada, F. and P.J. Murison, Induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone or propofol before isoflurane maintenance in cats.Veterinary Record, 2010. 167(3): p. 85-89 -
  • Maddern, K., et al., Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2010. 37(1): p. 7-13. -
  • Jimenez, C.P., et al., Evaluation of the quality of the recovery after administration of propofol or alfaxalone for induction of anaesthesia in dogs anaesthetized for magnetic resonance imaging. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(2): p. 151-159 -
  • Jansen, K.S. and J.J. Uilenreel, A comparison between alfaxalone and propofol continuous rate infusions in a total intravenous anaesthesia protocol for canine surgical patients.2009, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - University of Utrecht
  • Herbert, G.L.,et al., Alfaxalone for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a comparison of premedication with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. -
  • Amengual, M.,et al., An evaluation of anaesthetic induction in healthy dogs using rapid intravenous injection of propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012 -
  • Metcalfe, S., et al. A multi-centre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan® administered to bitches for induction of anaesthesia prior to caesarean sectionin 33 rd World Small Animal Congress.2008. Dublin, Ireland: WSAVA/FECAVA -
  • O’Hagan, B., et al., Clinical evaluation of alfaxalone as an anaesthetic induction agent in dogs less than 12 weeks of age.Australian Veterinary Journal, 2012. 90(9): p. 346-50 -
  • O’Hagan, B., et al., Clinical evaluation of alfaxalone as an anaesthetic induction agent in cats less than 12 weeks of age.Australian Veterinary Journal, 2012. 90(10): p. 395-401 -
  • Jurox, NADA 141-342 Alfaxan® Intravenous injectable anesthetic for use in cats and dogs. Product Insert.2012, USFDA -
  • Heit, M.C., et al. Cardiovascular and respiratory safety of Alfaxan®CD RTU in cats premedicated with acepromazine, medetomidine, midazolam or butorphanol.in ACVIM.2004 -
  • Pasloske, K., et al., Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in both premedicated and unpremedicated Greyhound dogs after single, intravenous administration of Alfaxan® at a clinical dose.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2009. 32: p. 510-513. -
  • Ambros B, Duke-Novakovski T, Pasloske KS. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of continuous rate infusions of alfaxalone-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and propofol in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:1391–8. -
  • Pasloske, K. and T. Whittem, JX9604.07-H004 A target animal safety study in cats after administration of Alfaxan® -CD RTU as single, repeated injections on days 0, 2, and 5 at dosages of 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg.2004, On File at Jurox
  • Whittem, T. and K. Pasloske, RD9604.03-H005 Eight day target animal safety study of intravenous Alfaxan® CD RTU in dogs administered every other day.2004, Jurox Pty Limited
  • Ferre, P.J.,et al., Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in dogs after an intravenous bolus of Alfaxan®-CD RTU. Vet Anaesth Analg, 2006. 33(4): p. 229-36. -
  • Schnell, M., et al. Margin of safety of the anesthetic Alfaxan®CD RTU in dogs at 0,1,3 and 5X the intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg.in ACVIM. 2004 -
  • Heit, M.C., et al. Safety and efficacy of Alfaxan® CD RTU Administered once to cats subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg.in ACVIM. 2004 -
  • Muir, W., et al., Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in dogs.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(6): p. 451-462. -
  • Muir, W.,et al., The cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in cats.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2009. 36(1): p. 42-54. -
  • Pasloske, K.,et al. A multicentre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan® administered to cats for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.in British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress. 2007. Birmingham, UK. -
  • Pasloske, K., et al. A multicentre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan ® -CD RTU administered to dogs for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.in British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress. 2005. Birmingham, UK -
  • APVMA, Alfaxan ® Anaesthetic Injection Australian Product Insert Leaflet.2010 -
  • Jurox and Ricera, An in vitro study evaluating the binding of alfaxalone to various nuclear receptors (Ricerca Study No. AA94464).Records in House, 2010
Analgesia & General Anaesthesia References
  • A comparison of anaesthetic recoveries in cats following induction with either alfaxalone or ketamine and diazepam, Gieseg et al, 2013, NZVJ -
  • Vettorato E. Prolonged intravenous infusion of alfaxalone in a cat. Vet Anaesth Analg 09/13;40:551–2. -
  • Seymour C, Duke-Novakovski T, British Small Animal Veterinary Association. BSAVA manual of canine and feline anaesthesia and analgesia. Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2007. -
  • O’Hagan, B.J. and S.R. Raidal, Surgical removal of retrobulbar hemangioma in a goldfish (Carassius auratus).Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract, 2006. 9(3): p. 729-33. -
  • NHMRC, NHMRC Guideline to promote well being of animals for scientific purposes.2008. -
  • McMillan, W. and E.A. Leece, Immersion and branchial/transcutaneous irrigation anaesthesia with alfaxalone in a Mexican axolotl.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 619-623 -
  • Bertelsen, M.F. and C.D. Sauer, Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2011. 38(5): p. 461-466. -
  • Brodbelt, D.C.,et al., The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(5): p. 365-73 -
  • Glasgow University short form composite measure pain score (CMPS-SF). 2012 -
  • Whittem, T., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in cats after single and multiple intravenous administration of Alfaxan®at clinical and supraclinical doses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 2008. 31(6): p. 571-9 -
  • Dugdale, A.H.A., Veterinary Anaesthesia: Principles to Practice.2010: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Weingart, S.D. and R.M. Levitan, Preoxygenation and Prevention of Desaturation During Emergency Airway Management.Annals of emergency medicine, 2012. 59(3): p. 165-175.e1 -
  • Zaki, S., K. Ticehurst, and Y. Miyaki, Clinical evaluation of Alfaxan®-CD(R) as an intravenous anaesthetic in young cats.Aust Vet J, 2009. 87(3): p. 82-7 -
  • Psatha, E., et al., Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 24-36. -
  • Murison, P.J. and Martinez Taboada, F. Effect of propofol and alfaxalone on pain after ovariohysterectomy in cats Vet Rec., 2010. 166(11): p. 334-335 -
  • Mathis, A., et al., Comparison of quality of recovery from anaesthesia in cats induced with propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(3): p. 282-290 -
  • Maddern, K., et al., Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2010. 37(1): p. 7-13. -
  • ASA Physical Status Classification System,Amer Soc Anesth. -
  • Belelli, D. and J.J. Lambert, Neurosteroids: endogenous regulators of the GABA(A) receptor.Nat Rev Neurosci, 2005. 6(7): p. 565-575. -
  • Roth, F.C. and A. Draguhn, GABA Metabolism and Transport: Effects on Synaptic Efficacy.Neural Plasticity, 2012. 2012. -
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Fair Balance Statement

This website does not include all the information needed to use Alfaxan® safely and effectively. See full package insert for complete prescribing information. Alfaxan® is a general anesthetic agent for dogs and cats. Attention to safe anesthetic practices including thorough patient evaluation, ability to secure an airway and ability to support cardiovascular and respiratory function should be a priority when using Alfaxan®.